Research on the effect of different light intensities to the formation of major chemical components in tea shoots harvested by some selected tea varieties to produce Matcha green tea powder in Phu Ho Commune, Phu Tho Province in Vietnam

Thursday - 31/03/2016 04:09
The research results can be applied and transferred in the tea plantations and companies, tea processing enterprises in our country.
Research on the effect of different light intensities to the formation of major chemical components in tea shoots harvested by some selected tea varieties to produce Matcha green tea powder in Phu Ho Commune, Phu Tho Province in Vietnam
Research on the effect of different light intensities to the formation of major chemical components in tea shoots harvested by some selected tea varieties to produce Matcha green tea powder in Phu Ho Commune, Phu Tho Province in Vietnam
1. General information

 - Project title: Research on the effect of different light intensities to the formation of major chemical components in tea shoots harvested by some selected tea varieties to produce Matcha green tea powder in Phu Ho Commune, Phu Tho Province in Vietnam.

- Code number: DHH2013 - 02 - 35.

- Coordinator: Nguyen Quoc Sinh, Master.

- Implementary institution: College of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University.

- Cooperation institutions: Tea Research & Development Center, Northern Mountainous Agriculture and Forestry Science Institute, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.

- Duration: From 2013 to 2014.

2. Objectives

Evaluation of some morphological characteristics, yield components of tea and biochemical composition of fresh tea leaves cultivars, including PH8, PH10 and Keo Am Tich harvesting in the spring.

To determine the effect of the natural light intensity at different shading levels to indicators of tea quality such as some morphological characteristics, yield components of tea and biochemical composition of fresh tea leaves to produce Matcha green tea powder at Phu Ho Commune, Phu Tho Province in Vietnam. As a scientific basis for application of shading before harvest to produce Matcha green tea powder, contribute to improving the quality of raw materials for processing high quality green tea, improve the efficiency of tea production in Vietnam.

3. Creativeness and innovativeness

- The Matcha green tea powder processing for PH8 and Keo Am Tich cultivars.

- The success of the research is the new trend in research applications cover solutions before harvesting tea leaves to improve the quality of raw materials for processing green tea products with high economic value, improving the income of farmers.
 
- The opening up new ways of research and application solutions cover before harvesting tea leaves to improve the quality of raw materials and production oriented green tea products with high economic value, contributing to raising income for farmers in our country.

4. Research results

4.1. Some morphological characteristics, the yield components of tea and biochemical composition of some new tea cultivars:

The study were evaluated a number of morphological characteristics, the yield components of tea and biochemical PH8, PH10 and Keo Am Tich tea varieties harvest in spring as follows:

+ On morphological characteristics: In spring season, PH8 tea leaves have large leaf area, growth was superior to PH10 and Keo Am Tich varieties as growth surface area of the first leaf, second leaf, third leaf.

+ The yield related components in tea: In the first and secondly tea leaves, the difference between breeds was not significant, the proportion of other components are the significant differences. PH8 tea variety sprout volume, intensity ratio and tea leaves third highest, followed by a similar percentage after PH10 tea variety.

+ On the biochemical composition:

The content of solutes and tannin in PH10 and Keo Am Tich tea varieties are lower than PH8 tea variety.

+ PH10 tea variety contains the highest concentration of chlorophyll, while the content chlorophyll of PH8 and Keo Am Tich tea varieties than several insignificant. These varieties have dark green leaves is beneficial for processing Matcha green tea powder products.

+ PH8 tea variety contains the highest levels of the amino acid, followed PH10 tea variety and lowest Keo Am Tich tea variety. The Amino acid content contributes to the aroma, The high amino acid content would be beneficial for processing green tea products.

+ The caffeine content of PH10 tea variety is the highest, followed by Keo Am Tich tea variety and finally PH8 tea variety.

+ The catechins content of PH8 is the highest, followed by PH10 tea variety and finally Keo Am Tich tea variety.

+ PH10 and Keo Am Tich tea varieties have the highest content of soluble and have a low tannin content than PH8 tea variety, but PH8 tea variety has lower caffeine content and higher levels of the amino acid should be beneficial for processing green tea products.

Overall, the quality of tea leaves depend on the variety. In the spring, PH8 tea variety has many advantages such as green leaves, the snow feathers, leaf area, tea shoot component (the first leaf, second leaf, third leaf), shoot weights and especially biochemical components such as high levels soluble, high amino acid content, high chlorophyll content, lower caffeine content than Keo Am Tich and PH10 tea varieties.

4.2. The effects of light intensity on quality indicators of tea leaves:

- To reduce the amount of tannin, catechins and increases the amount of the amino acid,  solutes and chlorophyll content in the tea leaf, it is necessary to shading the tea leaves a few days before harvesting (Keo Am Tich and PH8 tea cultivars).

- To ensure high yield components of tea and biochemical quality of good material for Matcha green tea powder processing, shade-grown with 2 layers of mesh (32 holes/m2), natural light intensity from 3 to 10 Klux.

- After making the shade-grown tea plants with 2 layers of mesh, natural light levels from 10.0 to 20.0 percent compared with no cover (natural light intensity on the surface of the tea canopy reaches from 3 to 10 Klux), shade during the nine days, then picking of young tea shoots having three leaves and a bud. Obtain a material quality indicators include:

+ For PH8 tea variety:

- Morphological characteristics: bright green leaves and green leaf shadow, thinner leaves, the first leaf area was 2.18 cm2, second leaf (5.16 cm2), third leaf (10.92 cm2).

- The yield related components in tea: The data included in the association analyses were leaf length, fresh weight of shoots, bud density. Include: buds (3.5%), stem (22.80%), first leaf (8.98%), second leaf (22.62%), third leaf (42.10%), fresh weight of shoots (0.423 g), bud density is 380 buds/m2.

- Biochemical components: soluble matter content was 42.21 (g/100g dry matter), total amino acid (1.95 g/100 g dry matter), tannin (24.03 g / 100g dry matter), catechins (145.80 mg/g dry matter), caffeine (4.40 g/100 g dry matter), total chlorophyll (42.49 mg /g of fresh leaves).

+ For Keo Am Tich tea variety:

- Morphological characteristics: bright green leaves and green leaf shadow, thinner leaves, the first leaf area was 2.45 cm2, second leaf (4.41 cm2), third leaf (5.74 cm2).

- The yield related components in tea: Buds (5.37%), stem (25.17%), first leaf (10.06 %), second leaf (23.50%), third leaf (35.90%), fresh weight of shoots (0.724 g), bud density is 468 buds/m2.

- Biochemical components: soluble matter content was 41.47 (g/100g dry matter), the total number of amino acid (2.34 g/100g dry matter), tannin (20.87 g/100g dry matter), catechins (120.50 mg/g dry matter), caffeine (3.43 g/100g dry matter), total chlorophyll (45.29 mg /g of fresh leaves).

5. Products

01 paper published in the Vietnamese Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 02 thesis of undergraduate Preserving Agricultural and Processing and Food Technology.

6. Effects, transfer alternatives of research results and applicability

The research results can be applied and transferred in the tea plantations and companies, tea processing enterprises in our country.

Author: Nguyen Quoc Sinh

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